List of Mountains On The Moon

While we often associate Earth’s mountains with grand tectonic clashes, lunar mountains tell a different story. The lunar mountains form so fast, in the blink of an eye, formed from the fiery impacts of asteroids and comets. The Moon’s southern polar region houses a number of the lunar mountains, also known as massifs. Researchers speculate that these massifs might connect with the colossal impact basin at the Moon’s South Pole – pole-Aitken basin. Interestingly, this basin is known for being the oldest and largest impact basin on the Moon and solar system. It can be concluded that the lunar mountains formed due to the colossal impact. 

How Do You Determine The Elevation of The Lunar Mountains?

Unlike the Earth’s geological processes, where mountain chains through a collision of tectonic plates reshape the crust, mountains on the Moon occur at astonishing speed. Also, don’t expect towering and dramatic peaks when you look up lunar mountains. The Moon’s highest point doesn’t qualify as a hill on Earth – but more of a knob. This feature doesn’t cast an intimidating shadow in its surroundings but possesses gentle slopes. Nonetheless, don’t be fooled by that unassuming appearance – it stands nearly seven miles high – over a mile taller than Earth’s highest Peak, Mount Everest.

Mountains On The Moon
Mountains formed on the moon as a result of impacts. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Arizona State University

Surprisingly, the lack of oceans on the Moon needs a unique approach to determine elevation. Instead of using sea level as a reference point, scientists use lasers and cameras aboard spacecraft to create complex 3D maps of the surface of the Moon. These maps are the basis for determining average elevation, with individual features used concerning this reference. The methodology for defining mountain heights on the Moon has evolved over the years. In the 1960s, the U.S. Army Mapping Service used an elevation reference 1,737,988 meters from the center of the Moon. The Clementine topographic data recently established 1,737,400 meters as the universal datum for measuring lunar heights. 

Which Is The Tallest Mountain On The Moon?

Mons Huygens is the Moon’s tallest mountain, three miles above the plains. Reaching approximately 18,046 feet, even more than half Mount Everest’s height. The mountain was named after Christian Huygens, the astronomer who discovered Saturn’s largest Moon, Titan. However, its Peak is not the highest point – Selenean Summit is 35,387 feet above the center of the Moon. Despite this, Mons Huygens remains the highest mountain because the Selenean summit has gentler sloped with a 3-degree average incline, thus falling short of being classified as a mountain. 

Hadley Delta Mountain In Background
Astronaut David R. Scott, commander, standing on the slope of Hadley Delta, uses a 70mm camera during Apollo 15 extravehicular activity (EVA) on the lunar surface. Credit: NASA

How Many Mountains Are On The Moon?

There are about 30 Mountains on the Moon. Below are some of the highest mountains:

MountainHeightDiameterMountain RangeOrigin
Mons Huygens5.5 km40 kmMontes ApeninusAstronomer, Christian Huygens
Mons Hadley4.5 km25 kmMontes ApenninusInventor, John Hadley
Mons Bradley4.3 km30 kmMontes ApenninusEnglish Astronomer, James Bradley
Mons Penck4.0 km30 kmSolitary MountainGeologist, Albrecht Penck
Mons Hadley Delta3.9 km25 kmMontes ApenninusJohn Hadley
Mons Blanc3.8 km25 kmMontes AlpesAn Alpine Peak, Mont Blanc
Mons Wolff3.8 km35 kmMontes ApenninusBaron Christian Von Wolff
Mons Ampere3.3 km30 kmMontes ApenninusPhycist, Andre-Marie Ampere
Mons Pico2.4 km25 kmSolitary MountainMe and Peak in”iish”
Mons Piton2.4 km25 kmIsolated MountainTenerife Peak Island
Mons Vitruvius2.3 km15 kmMontes TaurusCrater Vitruvius
Mona La Hire1.5 km25 kmSolitary MountainPhillipe de la Hire
Mons Vinogradov1.3 km25 kmSolitary MountainA chemist, Alexander P. Vinogradov
Mons Maraldi1.3 km15 kmSolitary MountainCrater Maraldi
Mons Rumker0.9 km70 kmIsolated Lunar DomeKarl L. C. Rumker

Additionally, there are also smaller mountains on the lunar surface, including:

  1. Mons Agnes – 1 km
  2. Mons Andre – 10 km
  3. Mons Dilip – 2 km
  4. Mons Esam – 8 km
  5. Mons Argaeus – 50 km
  6. Mons Delisle – 30 km
  7. Mons Dieter – 20 km
  8. Mons Ardeshir – 8 km
  9. Mons Ganau – 14 km
  10. Mons Usov – 15 km
  11. Mons Herodotus – 5 km
  12. Mons Moro – 10 km
  13. Mons Gruithuisen Gamma – 20 km

To Wrap Up

From the above table, you notice that some mountains have mountain Ranges, but those are not all; there are more on the Moon, including:

  1. Montes Carpatus – 361 km
  2. Montes Alpes – 281 km
  3. Montes Apenninus – 401 km
  4. Montes Archimedes – 163 km
  5. Montes Agricola – 141 km
  6. Montes Caucasus – 465 km
  7. Montes Recti – 90 km
  8. Montes Jura – 422 km
  9. Montes Haemus – 560 km
  10. Montes Piphaeus – 189 km
  11. 11. Montes Taurus – 172 km
  12. Montes Spitzbergen – 60 km
  13. Montes Teneriffe – 182 km
  14. Montes Rook – 791 km

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Astronomy has mesmerized me since my father introduced me to space magazines and telescopes. My dedication to astronomy and the pursuit of knowledge has led me to various places, experts, and answers I hope to share with everyone one day.

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